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计算机的今生与未来:Computers:Now,and the Future

论文作者:英语论文网论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2014-04-14编辑:yangcheng点击率:2790

论文字数:1912论文编号:org201404112158391407语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:计算机的发展计算机的诞生Information MachineComputer ApplicationsScience and Technology

摘要:计算机的诞生被誉为人类的第四次工业革命,在20世纪80年代由IBM提出的简单的概念让计算机诞生,改变了人类对个人电脑的看法。从此人类的发展进入了信息化时代。

可能没有人能够想象,从20世纪70年代开始计算机将渗透到我们生活的各个领域,将成为在不同领域人类活动的不可分割的工具和手段。电子和微控制器技术的发展在其中产生了革命性的作用,计算机行业和工程的发展在20世纪80年代和90年代已固定好几次。在20世纪80年代由IBM提出的简单的概念让计算机诞生,改变了人类对个人电脑的看法。之后IBM决定,他们将开发计算机平台和微处理器,并会在计算机的体系结构上做出改变,使其他制造商能够配合做出不同的外部设备(坎贝尔 - 凯利,101)。

Perhaps no one could imagine in 1970’s that computers will penetrate into different spheres of our life and will become inalienable tool and means in different spheres of human activity. The development of electronics and micro controller technology made a revolution in computer industry and the development of computer industry and engineering was fastened several times in 1980’s and in 1990’s. The simple concept proposed by IBM in 1980’s gave the birth to the generation of computers which changed the life of humanity-to personal computers. After IBM decided that they’ll develop only main computer platforms and microprocessors and will make the architecture of the computer open so that other manufactures could develop different peripheral devices the computer industry was no longer stopped by domination of giant corporations in electronics (Campbell-Kelly, 101). The concept of making a computer personal had widened the range of application: from simple computer gaming and entertainment to a platform for the solution of different applied problems. Personal computers since 1980’s has made a great progress from being used as very expensive tools for database processing and different sorts of complicated calculations to a usual multi-functional electronic device which is owned nearly by every business and every family.

 

The common characteristics for a computer in early 1980’s were 3-10 MHz processor, 64-640 KB Ram and 10-20 MB hard drive. According to Shurkin These were the standard characteristics of the first PC computer: IBM model 5150 (97). This computer had lower characteristics than existing Apple models, but in comparison to Apple computers it had open architecture so that PC users could upgrade and install different additional types of hardware and peripheral devices if they had a need. It outlined PC’s individuality and flexibility so it became available for multi-purpose activity and became affordable for a bigger number of potential buyers. In 1983 IBM introduced a new model IBM AT (advanced technology) with Intel 80286 processor, then Intel 80386 and so on (Campbell-Kelly, 129). After the AT model was introduced, the growth of PC industry became so fast that sometimes it is impossible to outline the most important events. PC model with Intel processor 286, made computer architecture universal and open so that a number of other manufacturers began to specialize in the assembling PCs: small enterprises had a lot of options as they didn’t have to spend a lot of funds of hardware and devices which could become outdated every moment. The use of computers in 1980’s was already wide, but nevertheless they were not universally spread: entertainment (computer games with 2D graphics), data processing and engineering calculations. The opportunities of such computer were limited in order to make it universal: operation systems such as DOS and different Dos shells were rather complicated for inexperienced users, in addition there existed a number of compatibility problems of different software. Only after 486 Intel platforms allowed multi-task operation system windows to be run.


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