留学生硕士论文 英国论文 日语论文 澳洲论文 Turnitin剽窃检测 英语论文发表 留学中国 欧美文学特区 论文寄售中心 论文翻译中心 我要定制

Bussiness ManagementMBAstrategyHuman ResourceMarketingHospitalityE-commerceInternational Tradingproject managementmedia managementLogisticsFinanceAccountingadvertisingLawBusiness LawEducationEconomicsBusiness Reportbusiness planresearch proposal


ResumeRecommendation LetterMotivation LetterPSapplication letterMBA essayBusiness Letteradmission letter Offer letter



英语论文开题报告英语毕业论文写作指导英语论文写作笔记handbook英语论文提纲英语论文参考文献英语论文文献综述Research Proposal代写留学论文代写留学作业代写Essay论文英语摘要英语论文任务书英语论文格式专业名词turnitin抄袭检查









论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2016-04-29编辑:lily点击率:9895

论文字数:1223论文编号:org201604261215477241语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文






Transportation planning
Published: 23, March 2015

Transportation is any means of conveying goods and people. Transportation planning is about developing systems to improve the efficiency of the transportation system in order to enhance human access to goods and services (NRDC, 2010).

Transportation helps improve economic health and quality of life of a country or an area. It not only provides means of mobility and also patterns of grown and prosperity. Transportation planning recognizes the important links between transportation and other social goals. The planning process requires developing strategies for developing, managing, maintaining, and financing (Transportation, 2007). The planning is being done by making eco analysis a part of it. Incorporate ecosystem issues to guide future transportation decisions, uses advance planning to avoid or reduce impacts, and actively involve stakeholders. Planners and state resource agency officials most frequently reported reduced ecosystem impacts and improved cost and schedule estimates as positive effects. For example, planners in New York changed a planned five-lane highway to a lower-impact two-lane boulevard after weighing the area's mobility needs and the project's impact on the surrounding habitat. In Massachusetts, resource agency officials said that addressing ecological requirements in planning improved schedule certainty during the federally required environmental review (GAO, 2004). The transport planner role is now changing from technical analysis to the promotion of sustainability by integrated transport and sustainable policies (Wikipedia, 2010).

There are over 350 metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) in the United States. MPOs develop a long range transportation plan with a minimum 20-year planning horizon, which is revisited every four years in air quality maintenance areas like the SPC (Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission) region; and a transportation improvement program (TIP) that covers a four-year period, and is updated at least every four years (Commission, 2008).

Transportation planning in the US now shifted towards an approach that takes into consideration the communities and lands which streets, roads, and highways pass through. It focuses on passenger rail networks which had been neglected until recently. This new approach is known as Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) try to ensure people movement efficiently and safely with environmental sustainability and historic preservation. The CSS idea was initially introduced in 1998, Thinking Beyond the Pavement, conference to discuss and put forward transportation projects that preserve and enhance the above characteristics. CSS principles have since been adopted as guidelines for highway design in federal legislation. The recent advances have lead to the development of a professional certification program called, Professional Transportation Planner (Wikipedia, 2010).


共 1/3 页首页上一页123下一页尾页


英国英国 澳大利亚澳大利亚 美国美国 加拿大加拿大 新西兰新西兰 新加坡新加坡 香港香港 日本日本 韩国韩国 法国法国 德国德国 爱尔兰爱尔兰 瑞士瑞士 荷兰荷兰 俄罗斯俄罗斯 西班牙西班牙 马来西亚马来西亚 南非南非