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交通运输计划

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2016-04-29编辑:lily点击率:9895

论文字数:1223论文编号:org201604261215477241语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:交通运输计划西雅图

摘要:本文介绍了交通运输和交通运输计划的定义和重要性,以西雅图为例,具体分析交通运输计划在提高就业、保障安全、改善生活、建设社区等方面的重要作用,得出大力发展交通运输计划的结论。

交通运输计划

交通运输是指运送货物和人员的各种手段和方法。交通运输计划是制定计划,以提高交通运输系统效率,从而畅通人们获得货物和服务的渠道。(NRDC,2010年提出)

交通运输改善经济使其良性运行,并提高国家或地区居民的生活质量。它不仅提供物品和人员流动的方法,还决定了发展和繁荣的形式。交通运输计划需考虑交通和其他社会目标间的重要联系。该计划要求制定包含发展战略、管理、维护以及经费在内的发展战略(《交通》,2007年)。完成该计划需要做生态分析。结合生态系统来指明未来的交通运输决策,利用超前谋划避免或减少影响,并吸引利益相关者积极参与。规划师和国家资源局的官员经常性报道关于减少生态影响、降低经费运算和预期带来积极影响计划的相关内容。例如,在评估该地区的通行需求和该计划对周边居民的影响之后,纽约的规划师将原定的五车道高速公路计划修改为两车道马路以减小不良影响。

Transportation planning
Published: 23, March 2015

Transportation is any means of conveying goods and people. Transportation planning is about developing systems to improve the efficiency of the transportation system in order to enhance human access to goods and services (NRDC, 2010).

Transportation helps improve economic health and quality of life of a country or an area. It not only provides means of mobility and also patterns of grown and prosperity. Transportation planning recognizes the important links between transportation and other social goals. The planning process requires developing strategies for developing, managing, maintaining, and financing (Transportation, 2007). The planning is being done by making eco analysis a part of it. Incorporate ecosystem issues to guide future transportation decisions, uses advance planning to avoid or reduce impacts, and actively involve stakeholders. Planners and state resource agency officials most frequently reported reduced ecosystem impacts and improved cost and schedule estimates as positive effects. For example, planners in New York changed a planned five-lane highway to a lower-impact two-lane boulevard after weighing the area's mobility needs and the project's impact on the surrounding habitat. In Massachusetts, resource agency officials said that addressing ecological requirements in planning improved schedule certainty during the federally required environmental review (GAO, 2004). The transport planner role is now changing from technical analysis to the promotion of sustainability by integrated transport and sustainable policies (Wikipedia, 2010).

There are over 350 metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) in the United States. MPOs develop a long range transportation plan with a minimum 20-year planning horizon, which is revisited every four years in air quality maintenance areas like the SPC (Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission) region; and a transportation improvement program (TIP) that covers a four-year period, and is updated at least every four years (Commission, 2008).

Transportation planning in the US now shifted towards an approach that takes into consideration the communities and lands which streets, roads, and highways pass through. It focuses on passenger rail networks which had been neglected until recently. This new approach is known as Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) try to ensure people movement efficiently and safely with environmental sustainability and historic preservation. The CSS idea was initially introduced in 1998, Thinking Beyond the Pavement, conference to discuss and put forward transportation projects that preserve and enhance the above characteristics. CSS principles have since been adopted as guidelines for highway design in federal legislation. The recent advances have lead to the development of a professional certification program called, Professional Transportation Planner (Wikipedia, 2010).


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