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英语论文网提供美国留学论文辅导服务范例-从马拉松运动员看男女不同的机体差异

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:本科毕业论文 Thesis登出时间:2014-08-04编辑:felicia点击率:16894

论文字数:7359论文编号:org201408032116313232语种:英语 English地区:中国价格:免费论文

关键词:马拉松生物力学marathonanatomical differencesbiomechanics

摘要:本文是一篇美国留学论文。人类物种是与其他灵长类动物相比有更大的耐力,拥有慢跑的潜力。长距离运行的能力是现代人体解剖学的驱动力。本文具体分析了生物力学中男性和女性马拉松运动员的机体区别。马拉松是一种有组织的跑步运动,本文主要分析生物力学在体育运动中的应用。

超过大脑尺寸或制造工具的能力,人类物种是除了其祖先后唯一能够慢跑一英里的灵长类动物,与其他灵长类动物相比有更大的耐力


介绍性的简单而生动的引证(霍兹,2004),最近由两名美国科学家——丹尼斯·布兰布尔和丹尼尔·利伯曼,所做的一项研究已经完成,发布在《自然》杂志上(2004)。布兰布尔和利伯曼认为,长距离运行的能力是塑造现代人体解剖学的驱动力。早期马拉松人类有显著的特点,从马拉松男性和女性马拉松的技巧看出,短脚趾和长阿基里斯肌腱是极为重要的,造成马拉松运动员的机体平衡,本文具体分析了生物力学中男性和女性马拉松运动员的机体区别。


一些额外的历史评论后,本文将演示解剖过程,了解男性和女性之间的差异,了解特定参考后对其进行定义,对马拉松这个术语进行具体描述,马拉松是一种有组织的跑步运动,本文主要分析生物力学在体育运动中的应用。


More than by brain size or tool-making ability, the human species was set apart from its ancestors by the ability to jog mile after lung-stabbing mile with greater endurance than any other primate.'


The introductory quotation (Hotz, 2004) simply, yet vividly, expresses the results of a recent study completed by two American scientists, Dennis Bramble and Daniel Lieberman, and released in the journal Nature(2004). Bramble and Lieberman contend that the ability to run long distances was the driving force shaping the modern human anatomy.'Hotz’s characterization of early humans as marathon men and women from the tips of their distinctively short toes and long Achilles tendons to the tops of their biomechanically balanced heads' (emphasis added) sets the backdrop for this essay—an exploration of the biomechanical differences between male and female marathon runners.


After a few additional historical comments, this essay opens with a presentation of anatomical differences between men and women with specific reference to running then continues with definitions and descriptions of the term marathon, as a form of organized running sport, and definitions for the term biomechanics in preparation for a discussion of how the field of biomechanics is applied to running.


With this information as a foundation, the objective and scope will be articulated followed by presentation of previous methods and findings revealed from a search of the literature on the topic of biomechanical differences between male and female marathon runners and closely-related topics. These findings will be discussed and conclusions drawn. Finally, recommendations for further research will be presented.


To return briefly to the research findings of Bramble, a paleontologist and biomechanics expert, and Lieberman, a physical anthropologist, to continue setting the backdrop for the essay, Bramble states: Running made us human, at least in an anatomical sense. We think running is one of the most transforming events in human history' (Chui, 2004). Endurance running is an activity that is reserved for humans in the primate world and not common in other mammals with the exception of dogs, horses and a few others. Bramble and Lieberman contend that running permitted humans to scavenge and hunt for food over significant distances and that the high protein food they secured was instrumental in developing larger brains (Wilford, 2004).


To facilitate running, humans developed several traits including large buttocks with strong muscles which connect the femur to the trunk of the body preventing the body from over-balancing with each step.' In addition, humans have a lengthy arm-swinging stride' and [l]ong ligaments and tendons—including the Achilles tendon—[which] serve as springs that store and rel论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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