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留学生经济学作业:支持全球化的主要经济案例 [2]

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2016-08-11编辑:cinq点击率:14321

论文字数:3000论文编号:org201608111007192945语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:留学生作业经济学全球化

摘要:本文是留学生经济学作业,主要内容是分析全球化的概念,以及整理出相关的有助于促进全球化进程的主要经济案例。

gical information revolution for example the intranet in US army base commercialise to market. The innovation of the new technologies has made many countries to grow and a good example in this case is e-marketing. The change in Technological have reducing the cost of transmitting information in other word new technologies presence death of distance. The internet has allowedinformation and communication technology to flourish for example E-business. Internet communications with branches, suppliers, plants, distributors andcustomers generally do not require a physical presence in another country, while much can be achieved through licensing and franchising. As a result administration costs have fallen as firms from different parts of the globe can trade efficiently and effectively.

3.2. Trade Liberlisation
Another influential factor is the desire to circumvent tariff and non-tariff barriers by regional trading blocs. For example, the World Trade Organisation (WTO), which replaced the former GATT, was set up to help promote free trade by persuading countries to abolish tariffs and other barriers to open markets. The full benefits of trade liberalization are difficult to quantify. Studies evaluating the effects of trade liberalization under the Uruguay Round completed in 1994 estimate that the increase in annual global income could reach US$200 billion once the reduction in tariffs, export subsidies and quotas negotiated are fully implemented. A similarly positive outlook is provided by the Doha Round. With a 50 percent reduction in tariffs, the World Bank model suggests a real income gain for developing countries of US$ 83 billion or 1 percent, and an exports lift of 14.6 percent. High-income countries see a 0.3 percent real income gain of US$ 67 billion and a 2.8 percent increase in exports (Garrett and Goldin and Rodrik, 2003).

3.3. Comparative Advantage
Supporters of the WTO argued that there could be substantial economic welfare gains if there was integration of the world's economy into a single international market. Based upon Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Advantage, it was argued that free trade was likely to benefit countries. By allowing each country to specialise in full orpart production would be concentrated in locations which will enjoy the comparative advantage. It was further argued that specialisation in one type of export was likely to improve its quality and perhaps reduce production costs. For example, Belgian chocolates are exported worldwide. Their high quality is due to expert skills that their producers developed, a process known as learning by doing. Their average costs have also been lowered, by the use of specialised labour and capital; through specialised knowledge and research and development and also perhaps through economies of scale.

3.4. Growth of Multi-National Enterprise (MNE)
The growth of multi-national firms has contributed to the rapid increase in globalisation. Firstly, a multi-national firm can bedefined as a company that produces in more than one country. Inpractice, globalisation has involved MNEs because the scale of their investment is such that the sales of the largest MNEs exceed the entire GDP of many countries. Many MNEs have moved their production from the west to developing countries because they want to benefit from that country's comparative advantage, usually access to much lower labour costs. Due to the low standard of l论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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