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Environmental law essay:印度环境法 [3]

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2015-10-26编辑:chenyuting点击率:15761

论文字数:4775论文编号:org201510241617469013语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:precautionary Principle生态平衡环境法

摘要:摘要:本文主要讲述了印度的环境法。文章写了原则的起源、含义和性质、预防原则和国际法以及该法在印度的地位。

ential to adversely affect the environment.
 
Eventually “the Vorsorgeprinzip (precautionary principle) developed in the early 1970s into a fundamental principle of German environmental law and has been invoked to justify the implementation of vigorous policies to tackle acid rain, global warming, and North Sea pollution. It has also led to the development of a strong environmental industry in that country”. The concept was first enunciated by the German Federal Government in 1976 using the following words:-
 
Environmental policy is not fully accomplished by warding off imminent hazards and the elimination of damage, which has occurred. Precautionary environmental policy requires further more that natural resources are protected and demands on them made with care.
 
Subsequently the precautionary principle was invoked in the year 1984 at the First International Conference on Protection of the North Sea. Following this conference, the principle has been integrated into numerous international conventions and agreements. The North Sea Treaties (Bremen, 1984; London, 1987; Hague 1990; Esbjerg, 1995) are some of the early examples of international treaties where the precautionary principle has had a very prominent position.
 
含义和性质——Meaning and Nature

 

The precautionary principle aims to provide guidance in the development and framing of policies where there is scientific uncertainty. It continues to generate disagreement as to its meaning, ambit and objectives, as reflected in the views of scholars and international judicial practice. “On the one hand, some consider that it provides the basis for early international legal action to address highly threatening environmental issues. On the other hand, its opponents have decried the potential which the principle has for over regulation and limiting human activity. The core of the principle is still evolving”.
 
The scope of the precautionary principle goes beyond the problems associated with a short or medium term approach to environmental risks. It encompasses the concern of longer run as well and ensures well-being of future generations. A decision to take measures without waiting until all the necessary scientific knowledge is available is a precautionary approach. In its most elementary form, the precautionary principle is a strategy to cope with scientific uncertainties in the Assessment and management of risks. It is about the wisdom of action under uncertainty. “The precautionary principle is often seen as an integral principle of sustainable development that is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the abilities of future generations to meet their needs. By safeguarding against natural resource base that might jeopardize the capacity of future generations to provide for their own needs, it builds on ethical notions of intra-and inter-generational equity”.
 
The formulation of the precautionary principle in precisely and clearly expressed form, at the international level, can be found in the London Declaration of the Second International North Sea Conference. The Declaration states-
 
.. In order to protect the North Sea from possibly damaging effects of the most dangerous substance, a precautionary approach is necessary which may require action to control inputs 论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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