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Environmental law essay:印度环境法 [6]

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2015-10-26编辑:chenyuting点击率:15442

论文字数:4775论文编号:org201510241617469013语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:precautionary Principle生态平衡环境法

摘要:摘要:本文主要讲述了印度的环境法。文章写了原则的起源、含义和性质、预防原则和国际法以及该法在印度的地位。

e that among the principles emanating from international declarations, the Precautionary Principle is legally relevant and cannot be disregarded, either by the countries in the international order, or by legislators, policy makers and courts in the domestic sphere. From the moment when the Precautionary Principle is recognised as an element of international law, it also becomes part of the general principles of environmental law, with undisputed legitimacy in guiding the interpretation and application of all legal norms in force.
 
“The Precautionary Principle is frequently introduced in framework conventions. Although this strategy is widely used in international environmental law, it is merely a first step in elaborating more precise rules at the international level fleshing out that principle. Furthermore, in a number of international agreements, the Precautionary Principle” worded in such a way that it is deprived of immediate and autonomous applicability. Use of terms such as ‘form a basis for’, ‘in spite’, ‘endeavour’, etc. imply that the principle is merely intended to prepare states to implement their international obligations. Only the repeated use of state practice and consistent opinio juris are likely to transform precaution into a customary norm”.
 
The Principle of precaution has found only limited judicial support so far in international law, this despite many commentators arguing that it has reached the status of a principles of customary international law. In the case of New Zealand v. France, the right of France to carryout nuclear tests in the South Pacific was challenged. The opinion of Weeramantry, J. in this case suggests that the Precautionary Principle is ‘gaining increasing support as part of the international law of the environment’. The principle should be used where there is insufficient material before the court to justify action, even if this means acting ahead of ‘full scientific evidence’.
 
This opinion, however, was a dissent, and it is worth comparing a more, recent example where the Precautionary Principle has featured in international trade disputes. The US and Canada brought a dispute settlement case before the World Trade Organisation (WTO) against the EC, which in 1989 had banned the import of beef fed with growth hormones on the grounds that it was not safe for human health to eat such meat. The EC argued that its import ban was justified in the light of the Precautionary Principle, which is presented as a binding rule of international law. The USA and Canada denied that the principle already had such a status. The WTO found that the EC import ban violated WTO law, although the EC has continued to impose its ban and has been forced by the WTO to compensate Canada and the US for lost trade.


在印度的地位——Status in India

 

In India there are lots of environmental regulations, but most environmental regulations, like the Water (Protection and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 are aimed at cleaning up pollution and controlling the amounts of it release into the environment. They regulate the harmful substances as they are emitted rather than limiting their use or production in the first place. These laws are based on the assumption that humans and ecosystems can absorb a certain amount of contami论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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