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Environmental law essay:印度环境法 [5]

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2015-10-26编辑:chenyuting点击率:16294

论文字数:4775论文编号:org201510241617469013语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:precautionary Principle生态平衡环境法

摘要:摘要:本文主要讲述了印度的环境法。文章写了原则的起源、含义和性质、预防原则和国际法以及该法在印度的地位。

key elements of the principle. The common understanding of contents of the principle may be summarised as under:-
 ?Precautionary principle is applicable in cases where scientific uncertainties exist about the harm that is likely to be suffered in future.
  Some form of scientific analysis of the potential threat is mandatory as mere speculation is not enough to trigger the principle.
  Unqualified possibility is sufficient enough to consider the application of the principle.
  Application of the principle is limited to those hazards that are unacceptable.
  The principle requires interventions before possible harm occurs.
  Interventions should be proportional to the chosen level of protection and the magnitude of possible harm.


预防原则和国际法——Precautionary Principle and International Law
 
There can not be slightest of doubts regarding recognition and existence of the precautionary principle in the fields of contemporary national and international laws. Its outlines, however, are far from clear from a legal point of view. Essentially, the precautionary principle is an appeal to prudence addressed to policy makers. The principle does not offer a predetermined solution to every new problem raised by scientific uncertainty. On the contrary, the precautionary principle is a guiding principle that provides helpful criteria for determining the most reasonable course of action in confronting situations of potential environmental risk.
 
Whether precautionary principle is a legally binding principle in customary international law and national law rather than a guiding principle only is a difficult question to answer. It is generally understood that declarations of principles are not traditional sources of international law and therefore, not binding for the member states of the organisation that adopted them. Such international texts do not have the same legal force as international treaties and conventions. Strictly speaking, declarations of principles are nothing more than ‘recommendations’, without binding force. Despite of this fact one cannot undermine the legal relevance of such declarations. Even though they are not considered as sources of international law, they are legitimately capable of generating norms.
 
Declaration of principles, though not binding, can influence the elaboration, interpretation and application of international laws of member states of the international organisations that conceived or endorsed the declarations. One cannot underestimate the influence that general principles exert on legal formulation, be it in the international context or in the internal legislation and jurisprudence of countries. In spite of not being obligatory and binding, principles of law constitute important tools for the crystallization of new concepts and values.
 
Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice provides that the International Court of Justice, whose function is to decide in accordance with international law such disputes as are submitted to it, shall apply amongst other the ‘general principles of law recognised by civilised nations’.
 
Thus, the general principles of law are also sources of international law. Therefore, it seems incontestabl论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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