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论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:课程作业 Coursework登出时间:2016-01-05编辑:zhaotianyun点击率:8511

论文字数:3189论文编号:org201512091521159806语种:英语 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:交通城市规划transport dilemmas


Planning And Urban Transport Dilemmas Analysis And Solutions



Urbanization has been one of the most dominant contemporary processes as a more people live in cities now, more than ever before in history. Urban transportation issues are of foremost importance to support its uses in the form of moving both passengers and freight. Urban transport is highly complex because of the modes that are involved, the abundance of both origins and destinations, and urban traffic. For many years, the primary focus of urban transport has been on passengers as cities were viewed as locations of utmost human interactions with intricate traffic patterns linked to commuting, commercial transactions along with both leisure and culturally-based activities. Today cities are also recognized as locations of production, consumption and distribution, which translate to freight movement. Urban transit is an important dimension of mobility, most notably in particularly high density areas of cities.
Cities are locations having a high level of economic activities and are complex spatial structures that get its support from public transport systems. Problems arise when available transit systems cannot satisfy the requirements of urban mobility. Some problems have been prevalent from the beginning of civilization, like congestion. Other problems are relatively new like urban freight distribution or environmental impacts.

Congestion is one of the most prevalent transport problems in large urban areas. It is particularly linked with motorization and the diffusion of the automobile, which has increased the demand for transport infrastructures, which has often not been able to keep up with the growth of mobility. Since vehicles spend the majority of the time parked, motorization has expanded the demand for parking space, which has created space consumption problems particularly in central areas. Also, many public transit systems, or parts of them, are either over or under used. During the so-called 'peak hours' of use, overcrowdedness creates discomfort for individuals as the system copes with a temporary surge in demand. Low ridership makes many services financially unsustainable, particularly in suburban areas. In spite of significant subsidies and cross-financing, like as in tolls, almost every public transit systems cannot generate the sufficient income to cover both its operating and capital costs.
There are also notable difficulties for pedestrians that result from intense traffic, where the mobility of pedestrians and vehicles is impaired, and also because of a blatant lack of consideration for pedestrians in the physical design of facilities.
Also, there is an issue in regard to the loss of public s论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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