留学生硕士论文 英国论文 日语论文 澳洲论文 Turnitin剽窃检测 英语论文发表 留学中国 欧美文学特区 论文寄售中心 论文翻译中心 我要定制

Bussiness ManagementMBAstrategyHuman ResourceMarketingHospitalityE-commerceInternational Tradingproject managementmedia managementLogisticsFinanceAccountingadvertisingLawBusiness LawEducationEconomicsBusiness Reportbusiness planresearch proposal


ResumeRecommendation LetterMotivation LetterPSapplication letterMBA essayBusiness Letteradmission letter Offer letter



英语论文开题报告英语毕业论文写作指导英语论文写作笔记handbook英语论文提纲英语论文参考文献英语论文文献综述Research Proposal代写留学论文代写留学作业代写Essay论文英语摘要英语论文任务书英语论文格式专业名词turnitin抄袭检查









论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:课程作业 Coursework登出时间:2016-01-05编辑:zhaotianyun点击率:8914

论文字数:3189论文编号:org201512091521159806语种:英语 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:交通城市规划transport dilemmas


Planning And Urban Transport Dilemmas Analysis And Solutions



Urbanization has been one of the most dominant contemporary processes as a more people live in cities now, more than ever before in history. Urban transportation issues are of foremost importance to support its uses in the form of moving both passengers and freight. Urban transport is highly complex because of the modes that are involved, the abundance of both origins and destinations, and urban traffic. For many years, the primary focus of urban transport has been on passengers as cities were viewed as locations of utmost human interactions with intricate traffic patterns linked to commuting, commercial transactions along with both leisure and culturally-based activities. Today cities are also recognized as locations of production, consumption and distribution, which translate to freight movement. Urban transit is an important dimension of mobility, most notably in particularly high density areas of cities.
Cities are locations having a high level of economic activities and are complex spatial structures that get its support from public transport systems. Problems arise when available transit systems cannot satisfy the requirements of urban mobility. Some problems have been prevalent from the beginning of civilization, like congestion. Other problems are relatively new like urban freight distribution or environmental impacts.

Congestion is one of the most prevalent transport problems in large urban areas. It is particularly linked with motorization and the diffusion of the automobile, which has increased the demand for transport infrastructures, which has often not been able to keep up with the growth of mobility. Since vehicles spend the majority of the time parked, motorization has expanded the demand for parking space, which has created space consumption problems particularly in central areas. Also, many public transit systems, or parts of them, are either over or under used. During the so-called 'peak hours' of use, overcrowdedness creates discomfort for individuals as the system copes with a temporary surge in demand. Low ridership makes many services financially unsustainable, particularly in suburban areas. In spite of significant subsidies and cross-financing, like as in tolls, almost every public transit systems cannot generate the sufficient income to cover both its operating and capital costs.
There are also notable difficulties for pedestrians that result from intense traffic, where the mobility of pedestrians and vehicles is impaired, and also because of a blatant lack of consideration for pedestrians in the physical design of facilities.
Also, there is an issue in regard to the loss of public s论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

共 1/5 页首页上一页12345下一页尾页

英国英国 澳大利亚澳大利亚 美国美国 加拿大加拿大 新西兰新西兰 新加坡新加坡 香港香港 日本日本 韩国韩国 法国法国 德国德国 爱尔兰爱尔兰 瑞士瑞士 荷兰荷兰 俄罗斯俄罗斯 西班牙西班牙 马来西亚马来西亚 南非南非