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《巴彻斯特养老院》中的公共舆论探讨

论文作者:留学生论文论文属性:硕士毕业论文 thesis登出时间:2023-07-23编辑:vicky点击率:516

论文字数:35666论文编号:org202307132001523100语种:英语 English地区:中国价格:$ 66

关键词:英语语言学论文

摘要:本文是一篇英语语言学论文,本文以公共舆论的产生、传播和影响为基础,指出公共舆论在发展过程中所表现出的时代特点,进一步探究作者对于十九世纪社会环境变化的态度。

本文是一篇英语语言学论文,本文主要研究《典狱长》中公众舆论的发展。首先,舆论的兴起与19世纪的社会背景有关。一方面,个人主义鼓励公众争取自己的权利,这导致了对个人利益的追求在社会中普遍存在。

Chapter One The Concept of Public Opinion

1.1 Public Opinion in Western Culture

英语语言学论文怎么写

In ancient Greece, the signs of public opinion emerged, though the term was not created (Liu, Ji and Wang, 2009: 8). The city-state democracy which relied on extensive public opinion was implemented in Athens. In order to make public opinion, the capability of debate or speech that inspired people’s emotions was very important. It was the skill which helped politicians and slave owners to influence public’s emotions. Although the ideologists of ancient Greece did not have the concept of public opinion, they put special emphasis on the relation between public interests and the construction of city-state. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato (427-347 BC) was insecure about the public. For him, citizens didn’t have the right cognition of the meaning of politics, and they couldn’t understand the truth either. Besides, public opinion was the judgement that always changed constantly (qtd. in Zhou, 2012: 21). For this reason, the collective opinion might be worse than the individual idea. The governors should avoid becoming the slaves of public opinion. Apart from this, the public opinion was not only changeable but also easy to disappear. Therefore, it was difficult to define and grasp it. But Aristotle (384-322 BC), one of Plato’s disciples, appreciated the republican which aimed to protect the public interest. He was profoundly attracted to democracy. He held distinctly that supreme authority should ultimately rest with the many not with the few (qtd. in Logs, 1897: 16).  

1.2 Public Opinion in England Before the 19th century

In “Public Opinion and the Middle Class”, Francis G. Wilson argued that the success of the British parliament, the British empire, the British armed forces, and the stability of the Crown in the face of European revolutions were the embodiments of the progress of public opinion (1955: 488). However, the evolution of public opinion in Britain was not oversimplified but complicated. The elements such as economy, culture and politics all played the important roles in the generation and blossom of public opinion. Besides, the emergence of middle class was important in the development of public opinion. Nonetheless, this new class, as well as the public opinion, didn’t exist from the start but went through a long and intricate period. 

After the Norman Conquest in 1066, the feudal system was established in England. In all probability, the conquest of England by William the Norman retarded the rise of public opinion for some centuries (MacKinnon, 1828: 42). By territorial conquest, William the Norman destroyed a mass of English nobility and large estates fell into the hands of the King. In this period, the land of the country was parceled out to the followers of sovereigns who formed the upper class. Therefore, William the Norman became the supreme landowner of the state and the highest feudal lord as well. William Alexander MacKinnon, the author of On the Rise, Progress, and Present State of Public Opinion, in Great Britain, and Other Parts of the World, argued that the church always had great power in the days of popery (1828: 42). At that time, the information was controlled by the court论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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