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留学生国际商法论文范文《Shipping Offshore and Transport Bulletin》

论文作者:英语论文网论文属性:硕士毕业论文 dissertation登出时间:2012-03-21编辑:shayne fan点击率:21663

论文字数:33935论文编号:org201203211044457452语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:Shipping OffshoreTransport Bulletin

摘要:本文为留学生国际商法论文范文《海上航运和运输公告》-Shipping Offshore and Transport Bulletin。航运在欧盟竞争法的强势劲头下历来是受到庇护的。

Shipping Offshore and Transport Bulletin

 

All Change
Mike Pollen of DLA Piper's London office and BertoldBar-Bouyssiere of DLA Piper's Brussels office review theimpact of the new EU competition law on shipping
Shipping has historically been sheltered from the fullforce of European Union (EU) competition law. For thepast 20 years, EU Block Exemption Regulation No4056/86 has allowed liner conferences to fix prices andregulate capacity. Most non-conference shippingactivities completely avoided the reach of competitionlaw. All this, however, is set to change.On 25 September 2006 the Competitiveness Councilagreed that the block exemption will no longer apply andthat price fixing and capacity regulation in linerconferences will not be permitted as of 1 October 2008.Liner operators have thus been given a transitionalperiod of two years in which to fall into line with the newregime.However, EU antitrust rules will apply immediately totramp shipping and cabotage - no formal transitionperiod has been granted. Price fixing and capacityregulation in the shipping industry will be prohibited bythe EU antitrust laws, in the same way as is already thecase in other industry sectors.The EU Block Exemption Regulation No 823/2000 onconsortia continues to apply, but chiefly only coverscontainerised shipping. All other types of cargo shippingare governed by the 'general rules' of EU competitionlaw.
The consequences
The effect of the Competitiveness Council's decision iseffectively to put the entire maritime cargo sector on theantitrust radar. Carriers need to start preparing now inorder to avoid unnecessary antitrust risks.Previously, a maritime operator may not have needed tobe anxious about overstepping the boundaries ofcompetition law; some price fixing was permitted in anyevent. There was limited risk of sanctions in the absenceof a genuine law enforcement policy. From now on,however, the slightest overstepping of the boundaries,however accidental, may trigger dawn raids,investigations and sanctions, including huge fines andeven imprisonment of company personnel.
Failure to comply
Antitrust infringers risk fines of up to 10% of globalaggregated turnover. In the past, this maximum cap wasnever reached. However, the EU has recently publishedfining guidelines that can lead to fines four time higherthan was previously the case.For example, one fine from 2001 saw the infringingcompany fined almost ∈500m. Today the fine for thesame infringement is likely to be much higher. Antitrustfines at this level can put at risk the finances of acompany, even leading to insolvency.In addition to fines, infringers face other potentialsanctions, including:• private damages claims (including class actions)not only in the US, but increasingly also in the EU;• the company's reputation becoming tarnished inthe eyes of its customers;• incurring vast legal fees, and a potential threeyearinvestigation (not including any appeals)which will be a drain on financial and personnelresources; and• in some jurisdictions, employees, officers anddirectors also risk criminal sanctions includingimprisonment.These risks may materialise not only where companiesfix prices 'on routes' to and from Europe, but also inrelation to routes that are outside the EU but that havean appreciable effect in Europe.
Consortia issues
Consortia for shipping (chiefly container trades) continueto be allowed under certain circumstances, but with the论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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