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论文作者:留学生论文论文属性:硕士毕业论文 thesis登出时间:2023-09-12编辑:vicky点击率:169

论文字数:论文编号:org202309101510176757语种:英语 English地区:中国价格:$ 66




Chapter One Literature Review

1.1 Studies on Hollywood World War II Films


The relatively short history of the United States,spanning just over two hundred years,ismarked by a substantial number of conflicts involving bloodshed,wars,and massacres.Theconflicts include the Colonial Wars,Wars of Independence,the American Civil War,theSpanish-American War,World Wars I and II,the Korean War,the Vietnam War,the MiddleEast War,the Gulf War,the Panama War,the Afghanistan War,and the Iraq War.As a result,the Hollywood industry leveraged these wars to create diverse forms and broad themes in itsproduction of war films.

The production of American war films can be traced back to the earliest days of cinema.Specifically,the American Biography Company shot a 90-second fictional documentary,Tearing Down the Spanish Flag,during the Spanish-American War in 1898,which became thefirst film featuring war elements.Later,major figures such as Cecil B.DeMille and DavidLlewelyn Wark Griffith created foundational works in the war film genre with The Squaw Man(1913),The Birth of a Nation(1915),and Intolerance(1916).

The advent of the First World War led to a significant proliferation of the war film genre.Two famous films,Civilization(1916)by Thomas Ince and War Brides(1916)by LyndonChubbuck,gained enormous popularity.The momentum of the genre subsequently persistedduring the Second World War,when Hollywood produced more than 300 war films.Thedynamic growth of films centered around World War II aroused considerable academic interest,resulting in a vast corpus of literature that may be categorized into three distinct areas.

1.2 Studies on American Media Manipulation

During the emergence of American public relations in the 1920s and 1930s,someprominent individuals were concerned about media manipulation.Those who aligned withliberal ideology,such as John Dewey,voiced criticism against such practices.In The Public andIts Problems,Dewey(1927)asserts that media manipulation will impede the progression ofdemocracy and hinder the pursuit of expression and“develop some distinctive ways to use the inertia,prejudice and emotional tendency of the public”(169).In contrast,Edward Bernays,widely regarded as the“Father of American Public Relations”,responds with a divergentperspective.In his work Propaganda(1928),Bernays elucidates the methods of public opinionmanipulation and deems it an essential tool for modern scientific society.Harold D.Lasswell,one of the pioneers of communication and propaganda research,underscores the importance ofmedia manipulation and holds that there are“two wars”during World War I:the traditionalconflict fought with weapons and the propaganda war.In his dissertation,entitled“PropagandaTechnique in World War I”,Lasswell(1971)empirically examines the media manipulationmethods and puts forward a theoretical framework to support propaganda research.Furthermore,Noam Chomsky and Edward S.Herman(1988)analyze the American government’smanipulation of the media from five distinct angles,which he calls Concentrated Ownership,Advertising,Sourcing,Flak and the Enforces,Anti-“other”as a Control Mechanism.ThePropaganda Model is constructed based on the five filters and elucidates how money and powerinfluence the media and restri论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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