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literature review sample [2]

论文作者:留学生论文论文属性:论文指导登出时间:2010-09-22编辑:steelbeezxp点击率:19776

论文字数:3000论文编号:org201009220929227402语种:英语 English地区:南非价格:免费论文

关键词:literature review sample

anizations are normally structured commerce. It base on foundation of partnership that the organization already have, and address on the partnership maintaining.
Business to customers is normally spontaneous commerce. It mainly provides people a shopping mode that is efficiency, convenience and low cost.
Customers to customers focus on providing a platform that the people can share information and achieve personal goods exchanging.
The meaning and type of knowledge
  From Ancient Greece, the philosophers constantly argued one question: what is the knowledge. Both rationalism and empiricism though that knowledge is logical and acceptable real belief. (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995)
  The Oxford Dictionary and Webster’s New World Dictionary explain knowledge shown as below:
What someone knows about a particular subject.
The fact that someone knows about something
In 1916, Dewey had argued that knowledge is tool that people use it to cope with problem in their daily life. Afterwards, some scholars summarized the features of knowledge base on Dewey’s research shown as below:
1. Activity: knowledge derive from practical activities
2. Instrumental: knowledge is people’s tools that are used to deal with problems for surviving from environment.
3. Experimental: experiment is only way to validate the truth of knowledge
4. Creative: knowledge is created by people’s thinking through processes of activities.
Polanyi who is the fist man did research in classification of knowledge in 1967. He divided knowledge into to types: tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. He argued that:
Tacit knowledge: “tacit knowledge is knowledge that people carry in their minds and is, therefore, difficult to access. Often, people are not aware of the knowledge they possess or how it can be valuable to others. Tacit knowledge is considered more valuable because it provides context for people, places, ideas, and experiences. Effective transfer of tacit knowledge generally requires extensive personal contact and trust.”
Explicit knowledge: “Explicit knowledge is knowledge that has been or can be articulated, codified, and stored in certain media. It can be readily transmitted to others.”
  In 1994, Hedlund distinguished between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge (articulated knowledge) as:
“Articulated knowledge (AK) is specified verbally or in writing, computer programs, patent, drawing or the like.”
“Tacit knowledge is nonverbalized or even nonverbalizable, intuitive, unarticulated.” 
(Hedlund, 1994)
Nonaka and Takeuchi also argued that “explicit knowledge is objective and rational knowledge that can be expressed in words, sentences, numbers or formulas (context free). It includes theoretical approaches, problem solving, manuals and databases; tacit knowledge is subjective and experience based knowledge that can not be expressed in words, sentences, numbers or formulas, often because it is context specific. This also includes cognitive skills such as beliefs, images, intuition and mental models as well as technical skills such as craft and knows-how.” (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995)
  Badaracco (1991) pointed out that knowledge can be divided into two types: migratory and organization’s embedded in his book called “Knowledge Link”
  Gilbert etc (1996) classified knowledge into instrumental knowledge and development knowledge:
1. Instrument knowledge i论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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