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文献综述:对经济影响的研究

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:文献综述 Literature Review登出时间:2015-11-03编辑:zhaotianyun点击率:33826

论文字数:15302论文编号:org201511022306177278语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:IPL营销成本文献综述

摘要:本文主要讲述了文献综述对经济影响的研究。文中写了数据的表述和分析以及财务细节的关键,IPL和经济影响的分析总结。

文献综述:对经济影响的研究


介绍

利用体育市场的使用来探索经济利益的问题,大多数文献分析美国运动,它有着悠久的历史的,尤其是美式足球、篮球、棒球、冰球,同时对足球也有相当大的兴趣,世界领先的运动(例如,1998年欧洲短池游泳,1999年欧洲和2001年世界半程马拉松锦标赛)。

在过去的二十年里,城市之间已经有越来越多的竞争,国家和地区举办大型体育赛事。因此政府和其他重大体育赛事的倡议者,通过调试一个经济影响的声明,寻求支持其索赔的事件,提供一个经济增长的经济影响报告。例如,经济研究协会(1984)研究的洛杉矶奥运会,汉弗莱斯和普卢默(1992)研究的亚特兰大奥运会,和毕马威会计事务所的悉尼奥运会(1993)的研究。

举办体育事件,揭示了在我们的社区有大量好处,一些原因如增加社区的可见性,积极的心理收入,提高社会形象,都是常见的和可接受的规劝。体育赛事方面的经济影响,可以被定义为经济的净变化造成的运动事件和变化,是由活动涉及收购,操作,开发和使用体育设施和服务(利和奥尔顿,1983)进而生成访客的消费,公共支出、就业机会和税收。经济影响研究的支出可分为直接、间接、诱导效应。例如支出是直接投资需要满足游客对商品和服务的需求增加。间接影响是额外的涟漪效应轮再次初始观众的美元。诱导效应是就业和家庭收入的增加引发的经济活动而导致的直接和间接影响(道森,Blahna &基思,1993;霍华德&克朗普顿,1995)。


literature review On Economics Impact Studies

Introduction

The use of sports markets to explore questions of economic interest has a long history as the majority of this literature analyses US sports, notably American football, basketball, baseball, and ice hockey, whilst there is also a considerable interest in soccer, the leading world sport (For example, the 1998 European Short Course Swimming, 1999 European Show Jumping and the 2001 World Half Marathon Championships).

Over the past two decades there has been increased competition among cities, regions and countries to host mega sporting events Therefore Government and other proponents of major sporting events usually seek to back up their claims of the event providing an economic boost by commissioning an economic impact statement. For example, Economic Research Associates' (1984) study of the Los Angeles Olympics, Humphreys and Plummers' (1992) study of the Atlanta Olympics, and KPMG Peat Marwick's (1993) study of the Sydney Olympics.

Hosting a sport event has revealed a number of benefits in our communities and of those benefits, some reasons like increasing community visibility, positive psychic income, and enhancing community image are all common and acceptable postulations. Economic impact in sporting events can be defined as the net change in an economy resulting from a sport event and the change is caused by activity involving the acquisition, operation, development, and use of sport facilities and services (Lieber and Alton, 1983)which in turn generate visitors' spending, public spending, employment opportunities, and tax revenue. In study of economic impact Expenditures can be categorized as direct, indirect, and induced effects. For example direct expenditure is the investment needed to meet the increased demand of visitors for goods and services. Indirect effects are the ripple effect of additional rounds of re-circulating the initial spectators' dollars. Induced effects are the increase in employment and household income that result from the economic activity fueled by the direct and indirect effects (Dawson, Blahna, & Keith, 1993; Howard & Crompton, 1995).

Sports Economics possesses substantial experience in economic consulting to the sports industry, with specific knowledge of the economic impact of facilities, events, and teams so considering the publicity and scrutiny surrounding such studies, it is imperative to select a firm that not only has substantial experience, but also has a reputation for consistently providing an accurate assessment of economic impact.

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