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澳洲论文范文:国际法律环境下的克什米尔冲突 [6]

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:学期论文 termpaper登出时间:2014-10-09编辑:zcm84984点击率:11852

论文字数:5116论文编号:org201409201247384040语种:英语 English地区:澳大利亚价格:免费论文

关键词:澳洲论文克什米尔冲突国际法律环境International Law

摘要:本文是一篇澳洲留学生法律论文,主要分析国际法律环境下的克什米尔冲突,自1947年以来,印度和巴基斯坦之间的克什米尔争端已经成为了一个棘手的问题。他们已经经过了四场战争,但还无法通过和平的方式解决冲突,甚至双方都使用了武力解决。

th countries agreed to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed between them.

Both India and Pakistan failed to adhere the agreements. The Tashkent Declaration, Simla Agreement and Lahore Declaration and Agra Summit were meant to ease the tension between India and Pakistan and more importantly to resolve the Kashmir question. However, the two parties have continued to shift the blame on each other. Pakistan blames India for violation of Simla Accord when Indian troops occupied Siachen area in 1984 [18] . For Pakistan it was a clear breach of the Simla agreements. Anthony Davis and Ajay Singh, journalists with Asia Week, claim that the error was in the Simla agreement itself. The agreement failed to include the Siachen glacier area when drawing up the LoC. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties Of 1969 in article 48 provides that “ A State may invoke an error in a treaty as invalidating its consent to be bound by the treaty if the error relates to a fact or situation which was assumed by that State to exist at the time when the treaty was concluded and formed an essential basis of its consent to be bound by the treaty” [19] .

The Simla Agreement does not prevent rising of Kashmir issue in the UN. It also does not restricts both countries for seeking the bilateral resolution only. Para 1 of Simla agreement specifically provides that the UN Charter “shall govern” relations between the parties. Para 1 (ii) providing for settlement of differences by peaceful means.

Articles 34 and 35 of the UN Charter specifically empower the Security Council to investigate any dispute independently or at the request of a member State. These provisions cannot be made subservient to any bilateral agreement.

According to Article 103 of UN Charter, member States obligations under the Charter primacy over obligations under a bilateral agreement. Presence of United Nations Military Observes Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) at the Line of Control in Kashmir is a clear evidence of UN’s involvement in the Kashmir issue.

Rejection of Mediation: Despite the various conflict resolution prototype and formulas , there have been numerous mediation attempts in the life of the Kashrnir conflict, resulting in ceasefires (the UN's early work through the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan - UNCIP), and temporary de-escalation of tensions (through mediation by the USSR in 1965 and by the US in 1990). India resists the third party involvement and prefers to resolve the Kashmir dispute bilaterally and not under the aegis of any international organization [20] .

Both bilateral negotiation and mediation have been proven almost completely unsuccessful in creating lasting joint understandings between India and Pakistan over Kashmir. Why India rejects the role of international organizations like UN or any other third party? In bilateral negotiation India considers itself in a dominant position in the region, and has perhaps a stronger leverage in bargaining position as it was after 1971 war. Another consideration for bilateral negotiations is avoiding pressure to concede to an unfavorable settlement for Indian. Right of self-determination by Kashmiree people is equally unpalatable for Indian Government. In bilateral agreement India has able to convert cease fire line into the LOC as the de facto l论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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