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自由贸易在international trading发展中的重要性研究dissertation [4]

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:硕士毕业论文 thesis登出时间:2015-05-09编辑:felicia点击率:32931

论文字数:12510论文编号:org201505082029388273语种:英语 English地区:澳大利亚价格:免费论文



aked, gained a momentum after 2000. However, the export line still falls below the import trend.

As reported by the export promotion bureau, in 2005-2006 FY, export earnings have grown by 21.3%, which is due to high demand of, chiefly manufactured goods, led by garments industry and knitwear. During this period, import payments have grown by 9.5%.

In contrast to real export, manufacturing exports exhibit of higher exports than imports which are in percentage of merchandise exports. This is indicative of higher productivity.

When the country adopts rigorous trade policy towards openness and promoting exports, large scale capital owners and labor unions are in oppose to liberalization. The cause of opposition may lie in the fact that, increased competition, effect the workers, in protected public and private sector, who fail to adjust to the exposed economy, with increased productivity. The politicians tend to protect large scale owners, who severely discourage competition and create bias towards exports (Sattar, 2004).

3. Literature Review

3.1. Concepts and Empirics on Export-Led Growth Phenomenon

Export led growth phenomenon has been central to the trade and development literature for many years. The bulk of researches that has taken place on this issue are therefore, not small in number and range. The focuses of these studies were bi-directional. Some of the studies attempted to find whether expanding export would improve the growth performance. Others tried to find the paths through which the expansion of export will affect the growth performance. Economic theory confirms that export expansion leads to increase the growth performance, as that efficiently allocates productive resources and also with the high volume of productive resources accumulated as a result of higher capital earned through export growth, (Bardhan, 1970; Cheneray, 1966; Basu, 1991; Romer P. , 1989 ; McKinnon, 1964; Grossman, 1991).

Export expansion makes the home country to concentrate on comparative advantages and to earn economies of scale. The home country continues to invest on its economies of scale and achieve better efficiency. The increased efficiency creates external competitive pressure on the home country, along with improved internal competition. In the face of more competition, the monopolistic and oligopolostic behavior of the market is eliminated. Efficiency is also created as learning by doing. Knowledge is transferred to other sectors and growth is enhanced. The external competition, aids the small economy to realise and emphasize on removing limitations, through economies of scale, and by reaping the true advantage of globalisation, which is acquired by increasing export.

The theoitical literature also argues that, export expansion increases the investment and capital accumulation in a country. The two-gap model explains , that growing export reduces the constraints that prevail in foreign exchange. Such reduction of constraints lead to better accumulation of productive resources, capital goods and intermediate goods (McKinnon, 1964; Bacha, 1984; Cheneray, 1966). Export expansion 论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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