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Chapter One Pragmatism

1.1 Classical Pragmatism

Major contributors to classical Pragmatism are Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Peirce is considered to be the founder of American Pragmatism, who, along with other Metaphysical Club members, fixed its direction, focusing mainly on theorizing inquiry and the nature of truth. He is also given credit for initiating the Pragmatist Maxim, which was ably popularized by James later though James put more energy into exploring truth in religion. After the first generation of pragmatists, Dewey significantly switched Pragmatism towards other fields like education and politics, followed by a list of pragmatists who engaged themselves in social Science, etc. 

1.1.1 The Pragmatist Maxim

In How to Make Our Ideas Clear (1878), Peirce puts forward an idea: that in an attempt to make clear the meaning of abstract concepts or hypotheses, one should “Consider what effects, which might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of those effects is the whole of our conception of the object” (Peirce 293). In this way, a hypothesis should be clarified by its fruits or practical consequences it should bring if it is true. 
1.2 Neo-Pragmatism

The 1950s witnessed a dip in the popularity of Pragmatism as Dewey passed away. Decades later, some preeminent philosophers derived inspiration from the rich tradition of Classical Pragmatism and began exploring and examining its themes and ideas for their own purposes. Among them, Richard Rorty is the most high-profile neo-pragmatists, and his new ideas focusing on language systems also caused fierce controversies. 
Neo-Pragmatism abandons the explicit philosophical topic of experience. Rorty began his pre-pragmatist philosophical career as an eliminative materialist, and the perspective continues in Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, strengthened recently by Sellarsian worries about the “myth of the given.” Rorty asserts on this premise that “Dewey should have abandoned the term ‘experience’ rather than redefining it... He should have agreed with Peirce that a large chasm separates sensation and cognition, [and] concluded that cognition is only conceivable for language users...” (Rorty 46) In contrast to classical Pragmatism, which focuses on experience, Rorty lays much emphasis on language. Thus, another critical perspective in Rorty’s Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature is that our experience is structured by the linguistic structure. “There is nothing beyond vocabularies which serves as a criterion of choice between them” (Rorty 80).

Chapter Two Pragmatism Manifested in Dickinson’s Poetry

2.1 Dickinson’s Attitude towards Religion

Dickinson was born into a Puritan family with a reputation for its piety and grew up in a town structured by religious beliefs. However, as she read and learned, she was increasingly exposed to science and some philosophical trend like Transcendentalism, where new bonds between God and man were advocated. Does God exist? What’s the relationshi论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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