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Tourism Assignemnt:旅游业是一个复杂的系统 [2]

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2015-12-28编辑:zhaotianyun点击率:11441

论文字数:2493论文编号:org201512102052089300语种:英语 English地区:丹麦价格:免费论文

关键词:旅游产品旅游类型Dominican Republic

摘要:摘要:本文主要讲述了旅游业复杂系统中需要其他不同部门间的相互影响,来促成系统间的运作。

o protect the environment, and yet another group of people concerned with the social and cultural impacts of a tourist region. All three groups must achieve a balance to enable sustainable tourism. This idea is shown on the following graphic:
 
旅游类型和实施旅游模式——Tourist typology and their implementation to tourism models
 
斯坦利·c·帕洛格——Stanley C. Plog
 
One approach to understand tourist behaviour is to identify different types of people, whereupon they can be categorised into a series of organised psychographic types. In 1973 Stanley C. Plog created a model for the American population showing how personal motivation influences the decision for a vacation destination. He divided tourists into four types: allocentric, near-allocentric, mid-centric, and near-psychocentric/psychocentric. The allocentric type views travelling as an opportunity to discover foreign cultures and prefers exotic destinations. They are self confident and open for new experiences. The near-allocentric type is sporty, seeks challenges and views the journey as a chance to test a new lifestyle. The mid-centric type looks for relaxation and pleasure in a well-known environment. They want to escape from the daily routine and enjoy comfortable accommodation. The near-psychocentric and psychocentric types are focused on themselves and are scared to discover something new. These people tend to look for a safe place to holiday. Their choice of destination will be a place they know and where they are not that far away from their home city (Johnson & Thomas, 1992: 19).
Plog considered that there are just a few 'psychocentric' or 'allocentric' types because the majority of tourists are mid-centric.
However, Plog's model is hard to apply in reality. For example the Dominion Republic has a lot of organised mass tourism and it is possible to organize a journey by yourself as well. Every tourist is an individual, so they cannot be generalized. One trip can have a completely different occasion and characteristic than the other one (Cooper, 2008: 48).
 
科恩的旅游类型——Cohen's tourist typology
 
Another model which classifies tourists is Cohen's tourist typology. He divides tourists into the organised mass tourist, the individual mass tourist, the explorer and the drifter. Cohen explains that organised mass tourists are typically purchasing a ready-made package tour where they have no or just a little contact with the local people and stay most of the time inside a resort. This is similar to Plog's 'psychocentrics` type. In Cohen's theory most of the tourists are individual mass tourists. They are similar to the organised mass tourists, but they have more flexibility and scope for personal choice. They want to have contact to the local people. This category is comparable to Plog's 'midcentric' tourists and most tourists fall into this category. The third tourist type is the explorer, who organises the trip by himself and looks for something special, something away from the typical interests of a mass tourist. However, he is still interested in comfortable accommodations. The last type, the drifter, is completely independent, wants to live with local people and wants to take part in the native culture. Cohen's last two tourists' theories, the explorer and the drifter, which are also the minority in thi论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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