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工业与学术之间的差距 英语论文范文 [2]

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2014-09-19编辑:yangcheng点击率:27021

论文字数:10965论文编号:org201409172240269951语种:英语 English地区:加拿大价格:免费论文

关键词:industryacademia农业国家差距巴基斯坦

摘要:本文是一篇工业与学术之间的差距的留学生论文,巴基斯坦证面临着不断增加的问题,所以我们可以把世界上经济繁荣的国家作为榜样,然后在几乎所有认为对国家的发展有用的方面,从他们身上学习经验。

earch for the development of its product, to get to know the requirements and demands of the market and then to successfully commercialize their products. Since the industry had to do all the research on their own so they were not willing to share this information with anyone, because they believed that if they were to share this valuable information with someone, then their competitive advantage can be lost, while on the other side the academia used to do its own research. Now both the entities were conducting research at their ends but there was no collaboration between the two, as a result the society could not benefit at a level if both had collaborated. After this academia and the industry started to think about how they could help each other through their collaboration, but there was an issue of mistrust predominant from the industry side, in order to overcome this the government of the country played an important role, realizing the limitations of both the entities, government devised certain legislations that helped the industry believe that the information gathered from their side by the academia would not be misappropriated and made them realize that this would benefit them in the long run.

On the other side the academia could not only get the information from the industry, but they were in a better position to collaborate with the industry, plus they were bound that this information will not be exploited by them, although they were the owners of this information but this information could not be freely available to everyone, there were special intellectual property rights that not only helped the information from misappropriation, but also became a source of earning for the academia.

In the findings of our research we constantly came across the concept of intellectual property rights (IPR). Before putting forth our findings let us understand the significance of IPR in University Industry (U-I) collaboration.

1.1 Difference in Missions of Academia and Industry

We know that there is an apparent gap between the Academia-Industry collaboration, especially when we consider Pakistan, and compare it with other Asian countries; this gap is more in Pakistan, and the reason for this gap between university and industry is largely a result of the difference in objectives. An industrial culture is based on profit maximization, secrecy and search for competitive advantage over other firms, is contrast a university culture is based on broad dissemination of knowledge and sharing of results. The cultural gap is also reflected in the reasons for conducting research activities and is often a source of tension during collaborative research efforts.

Generally we know that Universities and companies differ in the way that research is funded, the expected outcomes of research programs, and the way that each manages the results of research. The mission of most universities can be summarized as teaching, research, and outreach. In support of these elements of their missions, universities foster a culture which supports the sharing of information with colleagues and the publication of the results of research in peer-reviewed journals. In contrast companies use science to develop products that can be sold and generate a profit that provides a return to investors. In general, companies manage science for profit and often prefer to protect confidential information from early disc论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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