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工业与学术之间的差距 英语论文范文 [6]

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2014-09-19编辑:yangcheng点击率:26827

论文字数:10965论文编号:org201409172240269951语种:英语 English地区:加拿大价格:免费论文

关键词:industryacademia农业国家差距巴基斯坦

摘要:本文是一篇工业与学术之间的差距的留学生论文,巴基斯坦证面临着不断增加的问题,所以我们可以把世界上经济繁荣的国家作为榜样,然后在几乎所有认为对国家的发展有用的方面,从他们身上学习经验。

o license federally owned inventions

2.2 United Kingdom

2.2.1 UK Collaborative Research Success

The Government plays an active role for the collaboration of Industry and academia in United Kingdom. Government introduced a specific stream of funding to support knowledge transfer in the university sector in England in 1999. This funding has been administered by the Funding Councils through numerous separate initiatives. In England, these initiatives include the Higher Education Reach Out to Business and the Community Fund, the Higher Education Active Community Fund, University Challenge Funds, Science Enterprise Challenge and Higher Education Innovation Fund.

This funding has enabled universities to build up their capacity to:

Engage in networking and other outreach events with businesses, including small and medium enterprises.

Market their research and teaching to business.

Establish business liaison and technology transfer offices to provide advice and to negotiate consultancy, contract and collaborative research and license agreements.

Provide entrepreneurship training for science and engineering graduates.

Provide work placements for students in industry.

According to Higher Education Business and Community Interaction Survey, data collected for academic year 2008-09 show an increase in the overall exchange of knowledge between UK Higher education institutions and the public, private and third sectors despite the change and uncertainly in the economy recently. The growth rate in cash terms for the UK is around 5.5 per cent, from £2,812 million in 2007-08 to £2,966 million in 2008-09.

In UK, the universities on their behalf have developed several means to enhance the collaboration with business. Universities have been facilitated by government bodies to transfer their intellectual properties to the market in many ways. These include collaborating with business on research projects and agreeing at the outset exploitation rights on any intellectual property created, and making deals with companies to exploit intellectual properties already developed in university research. The first approach depends on experienced negotiators from both parties agreeing terms and conditions for intellectual properties within an adequate framework. The second requires dedicated expertise in licensing, spinout creation, venture capital, market research, marketing and Intellectual property management. Universities have set up specific infrastructures to provide these highly specialized skills.

The problem of information sharing between industry and academia and the issue of lack of trust is being handled through developing a proper channel of administration provided by government. There exists proper legislative framework which makes sure that both the stakeholders benefit from the collaborative efforts to work on project.

2.2.2 Copyright issues

Considering the digital media and the principle of copyright, law are filled with tension, making it easy to violate copyright law without aiming to, and campuses are often the subject of special scrutiny. This has been seen that the academic publishers remain concerned about the digitization and use of academic works in electronic course packs. To give an example of UK, In April 2008, three academic publisher论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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