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工业与学术之间的差距 英语论文范文 [5]

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2014-09-19编辑:yangcheng点击率:25200

论文字数:10965论文编号:org201409172240269951语种:英语 English地区:加拿大价格:免费论文

关键词:industryacademia农业国家差距巴基斯坦

摘要:本文是一篇工业与学术之间的差距的留学生论文,巴基斯坦证面临着不断增加的问题,所以我们可以把世界上经济繁荣的国家作为榜样,然后在几乎所有认为对国家的发展有用的方面,从他们身上学习经验。

ia collaboration is that the U.S. federal government, the major sponsor of research at U.S universities, makes technology transfers an obligation for the receipt of grant funds. Through the Bayh-Dole Act universities and other non-profit organizations that receive grants are required to facilitate the commercialization of research results for the public good.

As an example, at the University of Washington, a portion of the revenue generated from technology transfer program is used to fund graduate student fellowships and support a university-wide competitive grants program. In USA it’s the Federal government that provides the largest amount of research support to universities, and expects the universities to exercise responsible management of these funds; there is also pressure on the funding agencies to demonstrate the practical impact of this huge expense.

The academic sector sees industry R&D funding as a potential replacement for federal funding, especially in view of the new interest among corporations in partnering with universities. Universities are also under pressure from another major funding source, the parents of undergraduate students, to address the perceived imbalance between research and teaching in academia. University administrators in turn are placing more pressure on professors to link research to their educational programs, and also to integrate real-world concerns into both teaching and research.

2.1.5 Major Federal Legislation Related to Cooperative R&D and Technology Transfer

When we take a look at American industry, we find that there are a number of initiatives that are taken by their government in order to accelerate the rate of development in the country, taking in to consideration the work being carried out in academia as well as industry following legislations are made for academia-industry collaboration:

Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act (1980)—requires Federal laboratories to facilitate the transfer of federally owned and originated technology to state and local governments and to the private sector.

Bayh-Dole University and Small Business Patent Act (1980)—permits government grantees and contractors to retain title to federally funded inventions and encouraged universities to license inventions to industry. The act is designed to foster interactions between academia and the business community.

National Cooperative Research Act (1984)—encourages U.S. firms to collaborate on generic, precompetitive research by establishing a rule of reason for evaluating the antitrust implications of research joint ventures. The act was amended in 1993 by the National Cooperative Research and Production Act, which let companies collaborate on production as well as research activities.

Federal Technology Transfer Act (1986)—amended the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act to authorize cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs) between Federal laboratories and other entities, including state agencies.

National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act (1989)—amended the Stevenson-Wydler Act to allow government-owned, contractor-operated laboratories to enter into cooperative R&D agreements.

Technology Transfer Commercialization Act (2000)—amended the Stevenson-Wydler Act and the Bayh-Dole Act to improve the ability of government agencies t论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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