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工业与学术之间的差距 英语论文范文 [3]

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2014-09-19编辑:yangcheng点击率:27000

论文字数:10965论文编号:org201409172240269951语种:英语 English地区:加拿大价格:免费论文

关键词:industryacademia农业国家差距巴基斯坦

摘要:本文是一篇工业与学术之间的差距的留学生论文,巴基斯坦证面临着不断增加的问题,所以我们可以把世界上经济繁荣的国家作为榜样,然后在几乎所有认为对国家的发展有用的方面,从他们身上学习经验。

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1.2 Importance of Intellectual Property and Patenting Policies

The development of frameworks at the national and institutional levels that facilitate and encourage U-I Collaboration, particularly in the field of technology transfer, is a complex matter. Historical, economic, cultural and political circumstances affect the policy choices available in each context and influence their outcome and success in implementation.

Encouraging technology transfer from universities to the private sector, which is the innovative sector of the industry, has been identified in many countries as a desirable goal, while technology transfer may also result in additional revenues for the university. The focus should generally be on the benefits for society arising from the commercialization of university research results. In case of Pakistan, though, at individual level work is being done to result in the win-win situation between universities and industry, private sector to be more precise, however, due to lack of legislative actions and a common vision, this process is more business and self-benefit oriented rather than public benefit oriented.

Moving to the main subject in hand, Intellectual Property (IP) rights have become a widely used tool in many countries to promote U-I Collaboration as they can provide the necessary incentives to facilitate an effective transfer of technology. A key challenge for governments and institutions is to adequately support the technology transfer process through various mechanisms, including the use of IP rights, while not losing sight of, and reinforcing, the Educational and research mission of universities. The objective of the policy-makers, both at the national and institutional levels, is to set general measures that may be useful while developing policies for enhancing university-industry partnerships through the use of intellectual property rights. The focus should be on how to create the appropriate climate for the management of IP rights, particularly patents, by universities and their effective transfer to industry.

CHAPTER 2

Effort for U-I Collaboration in Developed Nations outside Asia

In order to understand, how the advanced economies of the world have reached the level of collaboration between the university and industry where they are today, let us take some examples of the advanced countries including USA, UK, and Australia.

2.1 United States of America

2.1.1 University Industry Collaboration

The US federal government promotes various policies aimed at increasing the level of U-I Collaboration. Some of the policies are primarily directed towards increasing collaboration within academic science.

The Bayh-Dole Act, enacted in the US on December 12, 1980, is considered a breakthrough in the history of American U-I Collaboration. The Act had essentially two purposes:

To allow universities and other non-profit organizations to patent and commercialize the results of their inventions made under government-funded research programs; and

To allow federal agencies to grant licenses for their technology to provide more incentives to business. By creating a uniform patent policy for all federal agencies that fund research and enabling universities to retain title to government-funded inventions, the Act p论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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