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澳洲论文范文:国际法律环境下的克什米尔冲突 [2]

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:学期论文 termpaper登出时间:2014-10-09编辑:zcm84984点击率:11674

论文字数:5116论文编号:org201409201247384040语种:英语 English地区:澳大利亚价格:免费论文

关键词:澳洲论文克什米尔冲突国际法律环境International Law

摘要:本文是一篇澳洲留学生法律论文,主要分析国际法律环境下的克什米尔冲突,自1947年以来,印度和巴基斯坦之间的克什米尔争端已经成为了一个棘手的问题。他们已经经过了四场战争,但还无法通过和平的方式解决冲突,甚至双方都使用了武力解决。

xchange for military support and creates an emergency government headed by Sheik Abdullah. Singh signed the accord on October 27 and on the same day Indian armed forces entered Kashmir to repel the raiders.

In response on the evening of October 27th, the Governor-General Mohammed Ali Jinnah ordered Lt. General Sir Douglas Gracey, chief of the Pakistan army, to dispatch Pakistan regular troops into Kashmir, but Field Marshall Auchinleck, (the Supreme Commander during partition period) persuaded him to withdraw his orders. Volunteers from Pakistan regular troops and tribesman transfer the military supplies to the raiders. On January 1, 1948, India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru following the advice of British Governor General Lord Mountbatten and contrary to the wishes of his Deputy Prime Minister Sarder Patel, lodged a complaint with the UN Security Council invoking Articles 34 and 35 of the UN Charter that called for a peaceful settlement of disputes over Kashmir. India blamed that Pakistan had assisted the raiders to invade by providing military equipment.

Geographically, culturally, ethnically and historically Kashmire was linked with Pakistan. Massacres of Kashmiri Muslims invoked the tribesman of NWFF to invade in order to safe them and liberate. In the UN, Government of Pakistan also challenged the validity of accession of Kashmir to India and Pakistan also requested for a UNSC commission to secure a cease-fire and to hold a plebiscite to determine future of Kashmir. On January 20, 1948, the Security Council established a three-member UN commission on India and Pakistan (UNCIP) [4] to send them to Kashmir to investigate the situation and exercise Mediation. On April 21, the Council expanded the commission to five and authorized it to restore peace and arrange for a plebiscite after the withdrawal of tribal troops. The UNCIP on August 13 passed a resolution calling both on India and Pakistan to conduct a plebiscite after they agreed to a cease-fire and after Pakistan’s regular troops and tribesmen were completely withdrawn. The cease-fire came into effect on January 1, 1949. Based on its resolution of August 13, 1948, the UNCIP sent a Monitoring Group for India and Pakistan (UNMGIP) to the region on January 24, to monitor the cease-fire line. A U.N. cease-fire leaves India with two-thirds of Kashmir and the U.N. calls for a plebiscite yet to occur until today.

The UN Secretary General appointed Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz (an American) to conduct plebiscite but he could not assume his functions as India and Pakistan objected to its implementation based on their varying interpretations of the UNCIP resolutions on the issue of demilitarization.

In December 1949, the Security Council assigned McNaughton of Canada to negotiate a demilitarization plan in consultation with India and Pakistan. Pakistan agreed to simultaneous demilitarization but India chose to ignore it by raising moral and legal issues about the plan. Without India’s support the initiative failed [5] .

On March 14, 1950, the Security Council passed another resolution to follow up on McNaughton’s proposals and appointed the noted Australian judge, Sir Owen Dixon, as UN representative to replace the UNCIP. In September 1950, Dixon suggested a proposal limiting the plebiscite only to the Kashmir Valley of the predominantly Muslim population, which both countries rejected. In April 1951, the Counc论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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