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英语类留学生案例分析:何为shadow banking

论文作者:meisishow论文属性:案例分析 Case Study登出时间:2014-11-13编辑:meisishow点击率:10184

论文字数:2220论文编号:org201411121743262553语种:英语 English地区:爱尔兰价格:免费论文

关键词:FSBshadow banking影子银行留学生论文

摘要:影子银行帮助催生了金融危机,对他们进行更好的监管将有助避免下一次危机的爆发,究竟的原因是什么,本文会有详细的分析。

马克•卡尼于近期被世界公认为是最大的威胁。卡尼做为英格兰的最高负责人同时也是金融体系的重要管理者,作为一个国际性监管机构,该部门的设立旨在防范未来的金融危机。卡尼被认为是新兴市场的影子银行。的确有证据表明影子银行会是一个全球性的不稳定因素。影子银行体积庞大,并且以某种大众知之甚少的形式快速发展。这种体系是一个强大的工具,如果不经过仔细的控制,也会产生一些潜在的威胁。


金融体系把影子银行定义为可以提供民间借地的一种非银行性质的机构。据FSB的估计,影子银行的资产总额由十年前的260亿美元增长到去年年初的710亿美元,占到全球金融系统的四分之一。在部分国家,影子银行扩张得更为迅速。以中国为例,单单是2012年,影子银行可以提供的利润率就可以达到百分之四十二。


MARK CARNEY, governor of the Bank of England and head of the Financial Stability Board (FSB), an international watchdog set up to guard against future financial crises, was recently asked to identify the greatest danger to the world economy. He chose shadow banking in the emerging markets. Shadow banking certainly has the credentials to be a global bogeyman. It is huge, fast-growing in certain forms and little understood—a powerful tool for good but, if carelessly managed, potentially explosive.


The FSB, which defines shadow banking as lending by institutions other than banks, reckons it accounts for a quarter of the global financial system, with assets of $71 trillion at the beginning of last year, up from $26 trillion a decade earlier. In some countries, shadow banks are expanding even faster: in China, for instance, they grew by 42% in 2012 alone.


But there is disagreement about what counts as shadow banking. The core is credit (everything from China’s loan-making trust companies to Western peer-to-peer lending schemes and money-market funds). A broader definition, however, would include any bank-like activity undertaken by a firm not regulated as a bank: think of the mobile-payment systems offered by Vodafone, the bond-trading platforms set up by technology firms or the investment products sold by BlackRock.


As our special report explains, services like these are proliferating because orthodox banks are on the back foot, battered by losses incurred during the financial crisis and beset by heavier regulation, higher capital requirements, endless legal troubles and swingeing fines. The banks are retrenching, cutting lending and shutting whole divisions. In America, for instance, investment banks are no longer allowed to trade on their own account, only on behalf of clients. British banks, meanwhile, have slashed their loans to businesses by almost 30% since 2007, with Barclays this week confirming plans to shed up to 14,000 staff. Shadow banks are filling these gaps.


Nobody is too worried by competition to banks in their ancillary businesses: if, say, Google can help people manage their money more efficiently, that is to be welcomed. The argument is about credit. In some ways, it is a good thing that lending outside the banking system is expanding. Banks are regulated for a reason: they have big “maturity mismatches” (borrowing money largely for short periods while lending it out for the longer term), enormous leverage and are tangled up in complicated ways with other financial institutions, so they are especially fragile. And when they get into trouble, taxpayers tend to end up on the hook, because governments both guarantee deposits and are frightened to let such big and complicated institutions fail. So if some lending is moving from banks to less dangerous entities, the financial system should be safer.


For these reasons, Mr Carney should be happier if, say, a Britis论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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